The Alpine Fault is called a strike slip or transform fault. The June quake was preceded by a magnitude 5.9 ML tremor that struck the region at a slightly deeper 8.9 km (5.5 mi). It remained the single largest earthquake to strike Hawke's Bay until 1931, where a magnitude 7.8 quake leveled much of Napier and Hastings and killed 256 people. In New Zealand they are formed along the Alpine fault by earthquakes. New research has revealed that some of the West Coast is sandwiched between enormous offshore fault lines and the Alpine Fault. Alpine Fault quake expected NZASE article 2019 Scientists estimate a 30 percent likelihood in the next 50 years of a magnitude 8 or higher (M8+) earth- quake along 400km of the Alpine Fault, a strength about three times greater than the 7.8 Kaikoura quake in 2016. Into the Night 05:10 Show lyrics (loading lyrics...) 2. [24] Originally this regional increase in grade was inferred to be from frictional heating along the fault not uplift of deeper geological sequences. On-fault earthquake timing in addition to the amount of dextral slip during major earthquakes was unknown along a 200-km-long section of the central Alpine Fault, while the amount of co-seismic hanging wall uplift was poorly known, prior to the present work. This gave a mean recurrence rate of 291 years, plus or minus 23 years, down from the previously estimated rate of 329 years, plus or minus 26 years. The Australian plate is sliding horizontally towards the north-east, at the same time as the Pacific plate is pushing up, forming the Southern Alps. In this recording, Alpine fault drilling, part of Te Papa’s Science Express programme, hear about the deepest fault drilling ever done in New Zealand. This method can even indicate rocks rich in high-pressure water, the source of hot springs like those at Hanmer Springs. The fault mover 30mm a year! Here the relative motion between the two plates averages 37–40 mm a year. The results suggest that ductile localization due to overlying faults may account for a large proportion of the strain observed in exhumed mylonite zones. [22] The fault was officially named the Alpine Fault in 1942 as an extension of a previously mapped structure. The uplift is due to an element of convergence between the plates, meaning that the fault has a significant high-angle reverse oblique component[ clarification needed ] to its displacement. In this paper, we investigate the timing and mineralization depths of AFZ clay mineralization using eight fault gouge … The mountains are rising at 7 millimetres a year, but erosion wears them down at a similar rate. The Alpine Fault then runs the length of the South Island just west of the Southern Alps to near Lewis Pass in the central northern section of the island. [32]. The Marlborough Fault System is a set of four large dextral strike-slip faults and other related structures in the northern part of South Island, New Zealand, which transfer displacement between the mainly transform plate boundary of the Alpine fault and the mainly destructive boundary of the Kermadec Trench, and together form the boundary between the Australian and Pacific Plates. In the new study, the interval between earthquakes ranged from 160 to 350 years and the probability of an earthquake occurring in the following 50 years was estimated at 29 per cent. [17] [18] [19] District councils along the West Coast and in Canterbury have commissioned studies and begun preparations for an anticipated large earthquake on the Alpine Fault. Vous vous demandez certainement où je veux en venir, et surtout quel est le rapport avec notre petite Alpined'essai. This was the first earthquake in New Zealand over magnitude 7 for which written records exist, and the first for which deaths were recorded. [2] At the same time, Harold Wellman proposed the 480 km (300 miles) lateral displacement on the Alpine Fault. The epicentre is estimated to have been within a zone extending 50 km northeast from Whanganui towards Taihape. The Wellington Fault is an active seismic fault in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand. The 2014 Eketahuna earthquake struck at 3:52 pm on 20 January, centred 15 km east of Eketahuna on the south-east of New Zealand's North Island. Richard H. Sibson from the same university also used the Alpine Fault to refine his nomenclature of fault rocks which gained international adherence. A right-lateral strike-slip fault, that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island. Type: EP Release date: November 2005 Catalog ID: N/A Label: Independent Format: CD Reviews: None yet [5] The Alpine Fault is not a single structure but often splits into pure strike-slip and dip-slip components. It was during this time that the cyclicity of the Alpine Fault earthquakes and meaning of the increase in metamorphic grade towards the fault was discovered and refined. Some trees survive landslides, but the event is marked by unusual growth rings. Virginia currently works as a Professor at the University of Mainz. In the last 12 million years the Southern Alps have been uplifted approximately 20 kilometres, however, as this has occurred more rain has been trapped by the mountains leading to more erosion. New Zealand is part of Zealandia, a microcontinent nearly half the size of Australia that broke away from the Gondwanan supercontinent about 83 million years ago. The United States Geological Survey reported a magnitude of 6.0 Mw and a depth of 9 km (5.6 mi). By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. See this Interactive map of the Alpine Fault and links to a virtual field trip on the University of Otago Geology website. It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. Alpine Fault discography (all) Severance (2005) Fire at Will Records Sampler (2012) > Iraena's Ashes Alpine Fault. This is distributed as 36–39 mm of horizontal and 6–10 mm upwards movement on the fault's plane per year. Exemples de décrochements senestres [10] So while earthquakes are an important part of Māori oral tradition, no stories have been passed down about South Island earthquakes. The 1855 Wairarapa earthquake occurred on 23 January at about 9 p.m., affecting much of the Cook Strait area of New Zealand, including Marlborough in the South Island and Wellington and Wairarapa in the North Island. There is paleotsunami evidence of near-simultaneous ruptures of the Alpine Fault and Wellington (and/or other major) faults to the North having occurred at least twice in the past 1,000 years. [27] The DFDP was the second project to try to drill an active fault zone and return samples after the San Andreas Fault Observatory at Depth. Le cisaillement sud armoricain [2] dans la partie sud du Massif armoricain. Movement along the Alpine Fault is deforming the microcontinent of, Pacific Plate and Indo-Australian Plate boundary, Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, "Alpine Fault / Major Faults in New Zealand / Earthquakes / Science Topics / Learning / Home – GNS Science", "New study says Alpine Fault quake interval shorter than thought: GNS Science", "Timing of late Holocene surface rupture of the Wairau Fault, Marlborough, New Zealand", "An extremely low-density human population exterminated New Zealand moa", "1. It forms part of the Marlborough Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate, from the transform Alpine Fault to the Hikurangi Trench subduction zone. Source: BBC Horizon (no audio) Alpine Fault Geology. Unless otherwise agreed in writing by GNS Science, GNS Science accepts … The Alpine Fault is the dominant structure defining the Australian-Pacific plate boundary in the South Island of New Zealand. The council's emergency management team has been working with Selwyn communities to get ready. This includes mylonites and the Alpine Schist, which increases in metamorphic grade towards the fault. Subject: Structural geology. [27] [28] One of the goals of the project was to use the deformed rocks from the fault zone to determine its resistance to stress. Alpine Fault. There have been no major historical earthquakes on the Alpine Fault. Project type: PGDipSci. This is not a regular pattern, but enough to suggest there is a high probability of a large earthquake in the next 50 years. In the South Island of New Zealand, the boundary between the Australian and Pacific tectonic plates can be seen on land. from M4 to M5) there is about a 30-fold increase in energy release. The eroded material has formed the Canterbury Plains. A lot of research is being done to find out about earthquakes in the past (called palaeoseismology), as they may help indicate when to expect one in the future. This set of faults, which includes the Wairau Fault, the Hope Fault, the Awatere Fault, and the Clarence Fault, transfer displacement between the Alpine Fault and the Hikurangi subduction zone to the north. [27] Researchers also planned to install long term equipment for measuring pressure, temperature and seismic activity near the fault zone. Fault Lines: Facts About Cracks in the Earth. [5] Then uplift slowly began as the plate motion became slightly oblique to the strike of the Alpine Fault. This study analyzes 195 earthquakes recorded during the 6 month duration of the Southern Alps Passive Seismic Experiment (SAPSE) in 1995/1996 and two M₁. This news article from Stuff covers some research on the frequency of past earthquakes along the Alpine fault. [20] [21], In 1940 Harold Wellman found that the Southern Alps were associated with a fault line approximately 650 km (400 miles) long. During the second phase of the Alpine Fault, Deep Fault Drilling Project (DFDP) in the Whataroa River, South Westland, New Zealand, bedrock was encountered in the DFDP-2B borehole from 238.5–893.2 m Measured Depth (MD). The Wairarapa Fault is an active seismic fault in the southern part of the North Island of New Zealand. What information is revealed? Harold William Wellman was an English-born New Zealand geologist known for his work on plate tectonics. [12] The 1717 quake appears to have involved a rupture along nearly 400 kilometres (250 mi) of the southern two-thirds of the fault. This displacement was inferred by Wellman due in part to the similarity of rocks in Southland and Nelson on either side of the Alpine Fault. The alpine fault runs along the west side of the South Island of New Zealand and is "one of the longest, straightest, and fastest-moving plate boundary transform faults on Earth."(eg. The work involves scientists from several disciplines working together, using different methods, such as: Using techniques like these, scientists such as Mark Yetton of the University of Canterbury have found out that major earthquakes happened on the central Alpine Fault in 1100, 1450, 1620 and 1717. It forms a transform boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. [29], In 2017 they reported they had discovered beneath Whataroa, a small township on the Alpine Fault, "extreme" hydrothermal activity which "could be commercially very significant". Science and technology. It is a dextral strike-slip fault with a component of uplift to the northwest as expressed by the Rimutaka Range. There have been no major earthquakes on the main portion of it. [2] In outcrop the fault zone is overlain by mylonites which formed at depth and have been uplifted by the fault. St. Andreas Transform Fault Alpine Fault New Zealand The types of transform fault that are always the longest Oceanic Transform Fault Continental Transform Fault EXPLORING THE PLANETS 3 The crust type and general of thickness of the crust. The horizontal movement along the fault is not smooth, as both sides are locked together. It forms part of the North Island Fault System, which accommodates the transfer of displacement along the oblique convergent boundary between the Indo-Australian Plate and Pacific Plate. That's before satellite photographs or plate tectonics. The Alpine Fault • Running about 600km up the spine of the South Island, the Alpine Fault is the on-land boundary of the Pacific and Australian tectonic plates. Project Number: 430W1444 DISCLAIMER This report has been prepared by the Institute of Geological and Nuclear Sciences Limited (GNS Science) exclusively for and under contract to West Coast Regional Council. The Hope Fault is an active dextral strike-slip fault in the northeastern part of South Island, New Zealand. Wellman became a Fellow of the Royal Society of New Zealand in 1954, and was awarded the Hector Memorial Medal and Prize in 1957 and the McKay Hammer Award in 1959. I'll See You Soon 05:36 Show lyrics (loading lyrics...) 4. A total of 1112 aftershocks were recorded, ranging between magnitudes 2.0 and 4.9 on the Richter Scale. The Alpine Fault is a geological fault that runs almost the entire length of New Zealand's South Island (c. 480 km) and forms the boundary between the Pacific Plate and the Indo-Australian Plate. But this should not lead one to overlook the fact that the Alpine Fault, so recognised, may occur in a wide zone of intense faulting, slicing, and brecciation-the Alpine Fault Zone. It runs as a single structure for over 500 km. Part 2 of Alpine Fault in Profile. It forms the sharp line separating the snow-covered Southern Alps in the east from the low coastal plain bordering the Tasman Sea in the west. The Southern Alps / Kā Tiritiri o te Moana is a mountain range extending along much of the length of New Zealand's South Island, reaching its greatest elevations near the range's western side. 5.0 earthquakes and aftershocks in 1997, which occurred close to the central part of the Alpine fault. Famous examples of these include the San Andreas Fault of California, the Alpine Fault of New Zealand's south island, and the Anatolian Fault in Turkey [6] [7] Also near the surface the fault can have multiple rupture zones. ", "DEEP FAULT DRILLING PROJECT-2 FAQs / drill probe in Alpine Fault / Media Releases / News and Events / Home – GNS Science", "Extreme hydrothermal conditions at an active plate-bounding fault", 2003 – Fiordland, estimated magnitude = 7.1. The Alpine Fault quickly became accepted as a notable feature of the geology of New Zealand, and by 1948 was included on standard geological maps. THE ALPINE FAULT ZONE For certain types of reports and certain structural problems, it is advisable to try to identify the Alpine Fault plane as accurately as possible and to fix its position in the field. The average slip rates in the fault's central region are about 38mm a year, very fast by global standards. Alpine climate, climate that is typical to higher altitudes; Alpine tundra, a type of natural region or biome; Alpine orogeny, in geology; Alpine Fault, a geological fault running nearly the entire length of New Zealand's South Island; Biology. Earthquakes along the fault, and the associated earth movements, have formed the Southern Alps. – Historic earthquakes – Te Ara Encyclopedia of New Zealand", "Catastrophic events in New Zealand coastal environments", "Videos show devastating impact across South Island if Alpine Fault ruptures", "Thousands to be evacuated, highways blocked for months when Alpine Fault ruptures", "South Island plan for the next Alpine Fault quake", "Buller District Council Lifelines Study (Alpine Fault Earthquake Scenario)", "Harold Wellman and the Alpine Fault of New Zealand", "Structure and distribution of fault rocks in the Alpine Fault Zone, New Zealand", "Deep Fault Drilling Project—Alpine Fault, New Zealand", "Drilling into an active earthquake fault in New Zealand", "Why are scientists drilling into the San Andreas fault? [8]. Curious Minds is a Government initiative jointly led by the Ministry of Business, Innovation and Employment, the Ministry of Education and the Office of the Prime Minister’s Chief Science Advisor. The name "Southern Alps" generally refers to the entire range, although separate names are given to many of the smaller ranges that form part of it. In Wellington, close to the epicenter, shaking lasted for at least 50 seconds. If you want to do something different and have a passing interest in geology, then this is a ‘must do’ tour. The 1929 Arthur's Pass earthquake occurred at 10:50 pm NZMT on 9 March. It has been suggested that the surface rupture formed by this event helped influence Charles Lyell to link earthquakes with rapid movement on faults. It’s the "on-land" boundary of the Pacific and Australian Plates. Type: Full-length Release date: November 11th, 2011 Catalog ID: N/A Label: Independent Format: CD Reviews: None yet Songs; Lineup; Reviews; Additional notes; 1. Scroll down to discover how! [4], The Indo-Australian Plate is subducting towards the east south of the South Island and the Pacific Plate is subducting towards the West to the north. Avec notre A110 d'un week-end, pour la première fois, j'ai eu l'impression de prendre le temps avec une voiture. Elisabeth, your guide, has a good knowledge of the Alpine Fault, and to be able to straddle 2 tectonic plates was a real moment to remember. using GPS to study small movements of nearby minor faults, and to measure growth of the Alps, using seismic data to find out how the many minor earthquakes in the area are linked to minor faults and the main Alpine Fault. In addition, an earlier earthquake was identified to have occurred between 887 and 965. [2]. This PDF provides a summary from the West Coast Reginal Council on Alpine Fault research past and present, including details of Mark Yetton’s methods. The fault plane is usually vertical and can be horizontal. An earlier event at around 1600 AD can be recognised throughout the study area, and this is the most recent event in the trench locations north of the Haupiri River. Geologically, this is a high probability. Because of this during the mid 20th century it was speculated that the Alpine Fault creeps without making large earthquakes. At this point it splits into a set of smaller faults known as the Marlborough Fault System. The 1848 Marlborough earthquake was a 7.5 earthquake that occurred at 1:40 a.m. on 16 October 1848 and whose epicenter was in the Marlborough region of the South Island of New Zealand. [27] It was led by New Zealand geologists Rupert Sutherland, John Townsend and Virginia Toy and involves an international team from New Zealand, Canada, France, Germany, Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States. GNS Science has this earthquake catalogued and places the epicenter 35 km east of Taihape, near the border of Hawke's Bay. How will the next Alpine Fault earthquake compare to the M7.1 Darfield earthquake of 4 September 2010? Where will the next earthquake centred on the Alpine Fault begin? She then worked as a research associate professor in geology and associate dean (international) in the Division of Sciences at the University of Otago. It is a dextral (right-lateral) strike-slip fault with variable amounts of vertical movement causing uplift to the northwest, as expressed by a series of ranges. 1.1 Tectonic setting of the Alpine Fault . Between 25 and 12 million years ago the movement on the proto-Alpine Fault was exclusively strike-slip. The Alpine fault is defined as the 650 km long feature that extends the length of the South Island. The rock contains bands of melted rock that seeps into fractures. Geologists working on Project AF8 believe that the next severe earthquake on the Alpine Fault is most likely to be a rupture that begins in South Westland and “unzips” northwards and will … of the Alpine Fault R.M. This idea coupled with the displacement on the fault proposed that the earth's surface was in relatively rapid constant movement and helped to overthrow the old geosynclinal hypothesis in favour of plate tectonics. How to solve: What type of fault is the Alpine Fault? This survey will open in a new tab and you can fill it out after your visit to the site. New Zealand's early separation from other landmasses and subsequent evolution have created a unique fossil record and modern ecology. New research from Victoria University of Wellington could prompt a shift in thinking about the South Island’s Alpine Fault. This earthquake was associated with the largest observed movement on a strike-slip fault, maximum 18 metres (59 ft). 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