Assertiveness helps to enhance relationships, avoid power games and is a vehicle for clear outcomes. Verbal communication is associated with spoken words and is vitally important in the healthcare context. Communication is a way in which humans make sense of the world around them. Journal of Advanced Nursing 2002; 40:731-738. Some ways of improving communication are as follows: Show empathy at all times and try to understand. Using the terminology which the patient does not understand can also frighten the patient and make him/her think that he/she has a more serious problem than he/she originally wanted help for. Effective communication practices both within and between clinical professions are essential to minimize risk in hospital settings and improve patient care, especially during the OOH period [3, 4]. One can usually deduce whether a person is listening actively by looking at the following non-verbal indicators: Is the eye contact maintained with the person who is speaking? Given the complexity of culture, no one can possibly know the health beliefs and practices of every culture. It is, of course, also clear from the verbal responses: Are there regular verbal responses, even if these consist only of encouraging sounds? Remembering to have a mutual agenda that meets the needs and priorities of the patient and family, as well as the healthcare team. The method of communication can be verbal and/or non-verbal or both. Conflict is a common effect of two or more parties not sharing common ground. The module encourages nurses to develop a more conscious style of communicating with patients and carers, with the aim of improving health outcomes and patient satisfaction. You put your absolute trust in this person not to lead you astray. Having listened carefully, the nurse then concentrates and responds empathetically to the patients’ feelings. Clear communication means that information is conveyed effectively between the nurse, patients, family members and colleagues. Be alert to the patient’s needs. Features such as time, messages, noise, fields of experience, frames of reference, meanings, shared systems of communicators and personal systems all pay a role in the process of communication. Non-verbal communication can be through gestures, facial expressions, tone of voice, sign language, writing, fax, emails so forth (Burnard, 1992). 6 Interesting Communication Facts (You Should Know) 8 Benefits of Reading (Why Reading is Important for Students) 5w and 1h of Report Writing. A research paper on effective communication and nursing must address all aspects of healthcare and communication. Interactive model of communication gives a slightly more complex explanation of the communication process. Message and data rates may apply. Nurses aim for collaborative relationships with patients, families and colleagues. Licensee IntechOpen. When providing emotional support, this understanding is often all that is necessary. … The critical nature of effective communication as well as accountability and the ramifications of poor communication skills can be a result of the creation of a non-harmonious rapport with the patient that results in misunderstood communication concerning the methods of care and or options open to them, as well as a host of associated factors. Shaping Effective Communication Skills and Therapeutic Relationships at Work The Foundation of Collaboration by Susan M. Grover, PhD, MS, RN l1 e study of communication is a vital part of under­ standing human behavior. The nurse should determine the patient’s level of understanding and if necessary change the use of language, comments and questions. Reassurance is not based on fact or real certainty. Contact our London head office or media team here. These will present barriers to effective communication. Reducing the cause of anxiety, distress, and anger would be the first step to improving communication. it is a methods of effective communication that is personal and has to be used more than only … Guidelines for effective patient teaching  Development and maintenance of rapport between nurse and client is important. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. Your communication skills can help you avoid conflict, support relationships with colleagues, solve problems and create better outcomes and experiences for people you care for.  Teaching with demonstration is effective. We share our knowledge and peer-reveiwed research papers with libraries, scientific and engineering societies, and also work with corporate R&D departments and government entities. The use of eye contact, touching and personal space is different in various cultures and rules about eye contact are usually complex, varying according to race, social status and gender. The roles are hard, challenging and tiring. 6 Principles of Effective Communication. Effective communication is a core skill for nurses and midwives. This is similar to giving advice, The nurse tries to defend someone or something the patient criticized. Truly listen. Meyer says there are many ways healthcare professionals can “be present, not perfect.” As a nurse and clinical psychologist, Meyer learned it “isn’t the medications, surgeries or treatments [patients and families] remember. And the best strategies and tactics are a win not only for patients but also for the clinicians who deliver patient care. Stroke or trauma may affect brain areas that normally enable the individual to comprehend and produce speech, or the physiology that produces sound.  Time for delivering teaching should be as clients convenience. Skilled use of therapeutic communication techniques helps the … Available from: Over 21,000 IntechOpen readers like this topic. Wilkinson SM, Gambles M, Roberts A. To ‘just listen’ without expressing opinions or offering advice is therefore, often not in their nature. 2. Communication in any form should be effective and meaningful to both sender and receiver. effective nursing communication skills are a critical element of patient care (Candlin & Candlin 2003). There are several points to be kept in mind when communicating with patients. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. The purpose of this conversation is always a better understanding of the patient. 15 Techniques to Develop Writing Skill. This type of conversation can be a structured interview using an interview schedule. Give your co-workers your full attention when communicating with them. Members of the multi-disciplinary healthcare team communicate verbally with one another and with patients as well as family members. 1. The impact of training on nurses’ abilities to communicate effectively. The goals of the interaction can be comprehensive. Effective communication can be defined as verbal speech or other methods of relaying information in order to get a point across. Effective communication in palliative care NS321 Dunne K (2005) Effective communication in palliative care. Communication takes place as an interactive two-way process or interaction, involving two or more people and can occur by nonverbal, verbal, face-to-face or non-face-to-face methods. The message must also be adapted to the age of the patient [10]. The Oxford English Dictionary defines communication as "the imparting, conveying, or exchange of ideas, knowledge and information'. Wittenberg-Lyles, Goldsmith, and Ferrell. The first point is that you are there to provide care and support to the patient. This encourages the patient to say more and does not limit answers to a ‘yes’ or ‘no’, This shows that you are aware of what is happening to the patient and encourages him/her to talk about it, This entails confronting the patient with an observation you have made and assess his/her reaction to it. This technique is used to indicate that a specific part of the discussion is coming to an end and that if the patient wishes to say any more, she should do so, “You went for a walk and then you felt the sharp chest pains, which radiated down your arm”, Draw a conclusion from the information you have gathered and discuss it with your patient to see whether it is true. Adaptability: Adapt your response to the clues the patient that the patient gives you. Publishing on IntechOpen allows authors to earn citations and find new collaborators, meaning more people see your work not only from your own field of study, but from other related fields too. Effective communication and the provision of accurate relevant and timely communication is essential to obtaining informed consent Informed consent The nurse must give the person adequate time to ask questions, make decisions and to refuse care, interventions, investigations and treatments, and proceed in accordance with the person’s choice, considering local policy. That’s what stays with them.” She referred to the “other half of the medical equation or the emotional standard of care, where practice makes better.” Ways health care professionals can be present include: Meyer encourages participants to be present in conversations by: Meyer used a Wizard of Oz metaphor to highlight the necessary components of communication: courage, brains and heart: In closing, Meyer offered words of wisdom: “Dig deep and find your inspiration ... Once upon a time, you wanted to change the world. If you need some help with your communication skills and would like to chat to someone, you can call our confidential support line 24/7 on 1800 667 877. 2. Be open, respectful and gracious in all your interactions with the patient and keep his/her cultural preferences in mind. You have to trust the person you are speaking with to provide the correct information in an easy to understand manner. Introduction Unintentional communication can occur through the tone, pace, volume or pitch of your speech, and non-verbal communication such as posture, eye contact, facial expressions and gestures (Ali, 2018; Borg, 2013). The nurse needs check with the patient whether he/she prefers to be addressed by first name or surname. Show empathy through words, gestures of kindness and caring. This technique is useful when verbal and non-verbal communication do not match, “You say that your ankle is very painful, but you do not react when I bend the ankle. Identify the person to whom you are speaking. 20,13, 57-64. Barriers are the factors that hinder or interrupt healthcare communication. Explain facts and procedures before donning a mask that covers the wearer’s mouth and lower face. The nurse should try to eliminate misunderstandings in the conversations by checking meaning with the patient. How? Communication is a key element needed to perform everyday tasks in order to become a successful nurse. Nurses are, in general, very active people, who want help b acting quickly. Often non-verbal messages send stronger signals than verbal messages. Try to reflect the feelings and thoughts the patient is expressing by rephrasing questions and comments using their own words. Communication involves information being sent, received and decoded between two or more people (Balzer-Riley 2008) and involves the use of a number of communication skills; which in a nursing context generally focuses on listening and giving information to patients (Weller 2002).  Repetition is necessary in teaching process. This essay will discuss how effective verbal and non-verbal communication in nursing practice will facilitate a mutually satisfying therapeutic nurse-patient relationship. Many nurses choose to work in other countries, providing an opportunity to broaden their experience and knowledge. The Balance Careers: Communication Skills for Workplace Success. Effective ommunication in hildren’s Hospitals: A Handbook of Resources for Parents, Patients, and Practitioners 4 Children's hospitals face unique challenges when they try to make practical improvements in their communication with children and family members. effective nursing communication skills are a critical element of patient care (Candlin & Candlin 2003). Communication is a core component of sound relationships, collaboration and co-operation, which in turn are essential aspects of professional practice. Make sure you have the patients’ attention when communicating. Shouting down a flight of stairs doesn’t exactly make for great correspondence. Effective Communication in Nursing, Nursing, Nilgun Ulutasdemir, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.74995. They are: The purpose of communication is to inquire, inform, persuade, entertain, request and investigate. In the modern caregiving environment, it is no longer acceptable … We are IntechOpen, the world's leading publisher of Open Access books. Active Listening. The following purposes are common in nursing: Assess a patient: The nurse wants to know more about a patient to identify his/her problems. It is therefore, easy to misinterpret the message, or to interpret it correctly, but to decide not to pursue its hidden meaning this leads to obstruction to communication. Clarity: Say precisely what you want to say without digressing, and support your verbal message with non-verbal indicators. CHAPTER 9 Communication and collaboration in nursing Learning outcomes After studying this chapter, students will be able to: • Describe therapeutic use of self. It will firstly discuss verbal communication, followed on by the complementary non-verbal communication and lastly listening. Without enough nurses on staff, the amount of time available for each patient declines. Promoting effective communication in health care is demanding and challenging because of the nature of the work environment. Nurses speak to people of varying educational, cultural and social backgrounds and must do so in an effective, caring and professional manner, especially when communicating with patients and their families [5]. The following criteria can be used: Simplicity: Say what you want to say concisely and without using difficult or unfamiliar terms. If patients are embarrassed or concerned that they will not be able to speak properly or control their mouth, they could be reluctant to speak. These differences make it impossible for the nurse to fully understand the patient’s behavior and reactions. Culture is another hindrance. Communication skills are vital to a healthy, efficient workplace. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. 3. Linear model of communication entails a sender, a message, a receiver and noise (Figure 1). Limit technical jargon when explaining diagnoses and devising treatment plans. Emotional support alleviates the loneliness of the patient’s experience of illness and increases his/her dignity [17]. Date of acceptance: June 3 2005. Many communication programs focus on delivering bad news, however, Meyer is particularly interested in moving beyond those first conversations to those that occur over time. Interaction between people is cyclic, which means that what one person says and does evokes a reaction from the other person, and this reaction again stimulates another reaction from the first person [10, 11]. Forbes: 10 Steps to Effective Listening This chapter provides the effective communication and interpersonal skills that enhance professional nursing practice and nursing relationships by explaining principles of communication, communication process, purpose of communication, types of communication, barriers to effective communication, models of communication and strategies of improving communication and guidelines for successful therapeutic interactions. “First, I learned how important it is for patients and families to tell their stories, to be listened to and to be known,” said Meyer. It is important for nurses to think about their own experiences when considering cultural differences in communication and how these can challenge health professionals and service users. Shaping Effective Communication Skills and Therapeutic Relationships at Work: The Foundation of Collaboration Dr. Susan M. Grover, PHD, MS, RN AAOHN Journal 2005 53 : 4 , 177-182 Nurses act as the hub of communication, relaying and interpreting information between physicians, caregivers, family members and patients. It is sent through the use of one’s body rather than through speech or writing. A Master of Science in Nursing (MSN) program can help you prepare for advance practice nursing and can improve your skillset including your ability to communicate efficiently and effectively. It is an essential element in nursing and this post will help you understand the concept of communication. However, it is recognized that such skills are not always evident and nurses do not always communicate well with patients, family members and colleagues. With the help of higher education, I can become a successful nurse by strengthening my natural ability to communicate orally, visually, and nonverbally. Barriers of Communication: Thus far we have seen what we mean by the process of communication. The lion’s courage reminds health care professionals to never underestimate the power of their courage, their leadership and their willingness to “go there” with a patient, a loved one. This influence can play a very important role in areas such as patient health, education and adherence [6]. The author wishes to acknowledge the Durban University of Technology for funding this book chapter. © 2018 The Author(s). Use the body language that indicates your interest and concern. Nurses are critical in the delivery of essential health services and are core in strengthening the health system. Always stand so that the patient can see the nurse’s face when communicating, as lip reading is part of all normal hearing. What is acceptable for one patient may not be acceptable for another. Effective communication is not only critical to meeting patient needs and providing safe, high-quality, and patient-centered care, it is necessary to how we manage healthcare delivery. From being aware of potential barriers blocking effective communication to utilizing integral communication skills, nurses can take steps toward providing better care. Increased workload and time constraints restrict nurses from discussing their patients concerns effectively [16]. Built by scientists, for scientists. Nursing is a communicative intervention and is founded on effective communication. Non-verbal communication is made up of: The communication process may be explained by means of a linear model of communication, interactive model of communication or transactional model of communication [11]. A ‘yes’ does not always mean ‘yes’. This could be done by using an explanation, empathy for the listener, and praise for the listener, an apology for the consequence for the listener or a compromise that is favorable to both people.  Use of A.V.Aids faster learning and grasp the client attention. There are many different ways to communicate, each of which play an important role in sharing information. Communication is seen as a process in which the listener gives feedback or responds to a message after a process of interpretation. Verbal and non-verbal communications are the two main types of communication used by human beings. This article provides a reflective account of the experiences of one of the authors of working overseas. This shows you are involved in what the patient is saying and that he/she should talk more about a specific point, or explain further, This is used to obtain more information about patient’s views and feelings, This is to make sure that you understand the patient correctly, “Do I understand you correctly when you say…”, The nurse offers his/her attention and interest without making demands, “I will be with you until they come to fetch you for the operation in theater”, By organizing and checking what the patient has said, especially after a detailed discussion. Nurses should share their aims with patients before expecting them to participate in the interaction. How long have you been aware of this illness?”, Use of examples and comparisons to concrete objects. effective, it must be communicated in such a way as to motivate each individual to understand it and then to use it”. At the same time, the patient could give incorrect information because due to confusion, he/she may give affirmative answers to questions about symptoms that he/she has not actually experienced [18]. While variances exist between instructors, the lecture-lab model is premised on the teachers giving, and the students passively receiving, knowledge. A Catholic University in the Benedictine Tradition, founded in 1887. The lecture-lab model is the traditional method to deliver nursing education, including communication skills. Communication is the exchange of information between people by sending and receiving it through speaking, writing or by using any other medium. BMJ Quality & Safety March; 20(3): pp268-74. Effective communication is largely based on trust. Do not however, force the patient to continue if he/she becomes anxious or seems to wish to change the subject. Nadzam D (2009) Nurses’ role in communication and patient safety. This chapter explores how effective communication and interpersonal skills can enhance professional nursing practice and nursing relationships with various stakeholders. Surgical Neurology International: Multidisciplinary In-Hospital Teams Improve Patient Outcomes: A Review. Listen to understand; not solely to respond—this is one of the best principles for … The nurse needs to be sensitive when dealing with a patient from a different culture [9, 15, 16]. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. Grapevine Communication: Definition, Types, Grapevine in Business Communication. The quality of communication in interactions between nurses and patients has a major influence on patient outcomes. Forging meaningful nurse-patient relationships can be accomplished by making small changes to nursing workflow.Sitting next to a patient while talking, even for a brief period, can help improve patient satisfaction score… The process also involves managing the setting so that people are not embarrassed, or the noise levels are kept to a minimum. 3 Ways Effective Communication in Nursing Improves Patient Care. Help us write another book on this subject and reach those readers. Effective communication skills and strategies are important for nurses. Yes, I do want to communicate with Benedictine University via SMS. This learning module highlights the importance of effective communication skills. The way in which the pone is answered and a message is interpreted needs special skills because the body language of the person at the other end of the phone line cannot be seen. Nursing Times [online]; 114: 3, 46-47. When answering the phone or making a call: Always speak clearly into the mouthpiece of the phone. Increases in nursing communication can lessen medical errors and make a difference in positive patient outcomes. Effective communication is an important component of quality patient care. Give emotional support: The presence of an empathetic nurse, that is, one who can enter into the patient’s shoes and understand the patient’s experience, is immensely supportive of the patient. In this case, it really is the best policy. Maureen Nokuthula Sibiya (March 21st 2018). You have to trust the person you are speaking with to provide the correct information in an easy to understand manner. Effective collaborative communication is essential for the success of any endeavor. It is therefore, important for the nurse to understand and accept differences in patients’ cultures and beliefs. Our word choice is critical. This is also a primer teaching you documentation and reporting in nursing. If this type of question is used often, the patient are less inclined to give the information and may be interpreted as an interrogation, These questions demand that the patient explains behavior, feelings or thoughts that he/she often does not understand himself or herself. Problem solving is done with the patient that the patient ’ s behavior and.. Display fortitude in reporting quality indicators should determine the patient that the person you are speaking others... To do and do not interrupt until the sender and the best policy can not be effective component nursing... Apply online Current Student Resources, schedule an AppointmentCall us ( 866 ) 295-3104 or any! People ’ s level of understanding and asking if there might be any questions or issues of concern caregivers family... 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Visit us at online.ben.edu/msn or call us Today at ( 866 ) 295-3104 what he/she said,... Also be adapted to the language, intonation and choice of language reflective of a message, a and. Individual influences the behavior of another, which leads to the message has successful. For clear outcomes you astray communications are the body and face turned the...